Author Archives: Tom Nunamaker
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Author Archives: Tom Nunamaker
I read a blog post today about the weekly options and how the risk was too high. The article was trying to explain that the wings are not priced correctly, which I agree with. The problem was the statement about risk vs time was incorrect. To quote part of the article:
“…the July weekly in 25% of the time has a standard deviation that is over 1/2 the size of the month out. For those that would think the expected movement of the weeklies would be 1/4 or less this is a big burst to your bubble. This basically says the trader is taking on over 50% of the risk in a trade that has only a week to develop. Many do not realize standard deviation is not linear!”
The assertion that standard deviation is non-linear is correct; however, to say that this relationship proves risk is too high just because of the time to expiration doesn’t make sense to me.Watch movie online The Lego Batman Movie (2017)
He compared a monthly option to a seven day option. The seven day option was about 50% of the risk of the 30 day trade in 25% of the time. He was comparing 25% to 50% and saying it’s too much risk!
The author forgot to look at the equation for time decay as it is a square root of time function.
Just a quick refresher… the square root of 4 is 2 and the square root of ¼ is ½.
So applying it to this idea of time decay, comparing ANY two options that have a ratio of 1:4 days to expiration will have a 1:2 ratio of time decay. So:
7 days vs 28 days
30 days vs 120 days
90 days vs 360 days
These are all 1:4 ratios so the risk should be 1:2 for all of them. If so, then the pricing models are fair and work for ALL option time frames. There’s no black hole where weekly option are mis-priced. If they were, they would be arbitraged back to the fair price right? That’s the argument Market Makers make to defend how the markets are priced fairly. You can’t have it both ways. Markets can’t be fairly priced for only part of the market right?
OK.. so let’s get back to our example. Let’s use AAPL and look at different 250 Call prices. Unfortunately we don’t have exactly 1:4 ratios of time, but we can still estimate the predicted price vs the actual market price to see if the relationships hold across all time frames.
Square root of (8/365.25) divided by square root of (36 / 365.25) = 47.1%
Therefore I would expect the 47.1% of the 36 day option to be roughly the 8 day option:
47.1% times $10.65 = $5.02 predicted price vs $5.175 actual price
Applying this same math to the rest of the combinations we find:
|8 days vs 36 day||47.1%||$5.02||$5.175||8 days|
|36 days vs 64 days||75.0%||$11.23||$10.65||36 days|
|36 days vs 162 days||47.1%||$11.87||$10.65||36 days|
|64 days vs 162 days||62.9%||$15.19||$14.975||64 days|
|162 days vs 526 days||55.5%||$26.92||$25.175||162 days|
Of course this assumes constant volatility and no interest or dividends, which is NOT real world; however, it’s close enough for our purposes. The longer term options are affected proportionately more for these factors so we would expect more error with them.
Overall I think it’s clear the markets are fair FOR ALL TIME FRAMES, INCLUDING WEEKLY OPTIONS! If you used my friends logic, you would only trade the farthest out in time LEAPS. Weekly options are fairly priced from what I can see. I’m not a Market Maker so perhaps I’m missing something. Please let me know what you think in the comments section.
I wrote an article on the benefits of weekly options. I was going to write the dangers of weekly articles next but I saw that post on another site and I had to add my $0.02. The dangers of weekly options will be next… I have it mind mapped already 🙂
Weekly Options are relatively new but are catching on quickly. Traders in our community are testing the waters with them more and more. The CBOE has a page dedicated to weekly options at http://www.cboe.com/weeklys
Here’s a list of seven benefits of weekly options:
1. High Frequency – Learn Faster
Every week is a new trade. You have more opportunities to perfect your trading skills in a given time period.
2. High Frequency – Over Come Losses Faster
If you trade monthly options, you have 12 trades per year. With weekly options, you can have 52 trades per year. This gives you more time to average out your trades and hopefully have a smoother equity curve.
3. High Frequency – Higher Annual Returns
Because you have over four times the number of trades in a year, if you can average even 1/3rd of your monthly yield per week, you should be able to have a higher annual return.
4. High Theta (this is a benefit for non-directional traders)
You can get in and out much faster. Some of our students are in the market one or two days per week due to the high theta
5. High Gamma (this is a benefit for directional traders)
This is a benefit to directional traders. Weekly options should be very attractive to gamma scalpers
6. Less Market Exposure
If you are in and out of your trade in a few days per week, then there are several days per week you are out of the market (flat). This reduction to market moving events is great! Since the weekend theta decay is normally priced out of options by Friday, most weekly option traders enter on Monday to Wednesday. Trading this way completely eliminates weekend risks which are 2/7ths of the entire year!
7. New Hedging Opportunities For Longer Term Positions
If you have a short term directional opinion, you can use weekly options in combination with monthly options or your underlying positions to protect yourself. A good example is yesterday’s FOMC announcement. You could have used the weekly options to hedge off risk until after the announcement was over and it was clear which waythe market was reacting to the news
Overall, weekly options provide some exciting new possibilities for option traders. I’ll present another list tomorrow of the Dangers of Weekly options to compliment this list. I’d love to hear if you can think of any other benefits to weekly options! Leave a comment below with your additions to this list.
Picture of the Day
A fellow student and I share a love of the T-38. Ed sent me a FANTASTIC book all about the T-38. What a wonderful gift! Thank you so much Ed!! In my previous life, I was a T-38A Instructor Pilot at Vance Air Force Base, Oklahoma. It was a few years ago but the T-38A Talon is still my favorite aircraft to fly. It felt like sitting on the end of a telephone pole, going 500+knots! The fastest I had one was Mach 1.35. That’s MOVING!
The T-38 is a fantastic aircraft in formation. Very nimble with a 720 degree per second roll rate! Ahh.. the good old days! Enjoy the picture!
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Calls and Puts are exchange traded option contracts that were originally designed to act as insurance mechanisms to protect financial postions. These options are contracts between a buyer and seller that give the buyer a right and the seller an obligation to buy or sell a security at a specific price (the strike price) on or before the option’s expiration date. Each option contract represents 100 shares of the underlying security.
Here is a quick summary for buyers and sellers of calls and puts:
The Call buyer
The Call seller
The Put buyer
The Put seller
XYZ stock is trading at $100 per share
The call buyer will pay the call seller $5.00 times 100 shares = $500 for wholesale nhl jerseys the RIGHT to purchase XYZ stock at $100 before the December expiration date. If XYZ rises above $105, the call buyer will make money as they can “exercise” the option to purchase XYZ at $100, and sell XYZ in the market at a higher price. The call buyer loses the $5.00 paid for the option so his “break even” price is $105.00
The call seller has the OBLIGATION to deliver XYZ stock to the call buyer anytime before the wholesale nhl jersey China December expiration at $100 per share. If XYZ stock is trading below $100 per share on the expiration date, the call “expires worthless” and the call seller keeps the $5.00 he sold the call for. If XYZ price is over $100 per share, it will be “called away” and the call seller will have a loss as he will have to provide the call buyer XYZ stock and only receive $100 per share for it. Breakeven price for the call seller is also $105. If XYZ expires at $105, the call seller has to provide the stock to the call buyer at $100 per share and purchases the same 100 shares in the market at $105, but he can keep the original $5 received for selling the call option.
XYZ stock is trading at $100 per share
XYZ stock DEC 100 puts are priced at $5.00.
This means the XYZ stock put option has a $100 strike price, expires in December and is trading at $5
The put buyer will pay the put seller $5.00 times 100 shares = $500 for the RIGHT to sell XYZ stock at $100 before the December expiration date. If XYZ falls below $95, the put buyer will make money wholesale nfl jerseys China as they can “exercise” the option to sell XYZ at $100, and buy XYZ in the market at a lower price. The put buyer loses the $5.00 paid for the option so his “break even” price is $95.00
The put seller has the OBLIGATION to sell XYZ stock to the put buyer anytime before the December expiration at $100 per share. If XYZ stock is trading above $100 per share on the expiration date, the put “expires worthless” and the put seller keeps the $5.00 he sold the put for. If XYZ price is below $100 per share, it will be “put to the put seller” and the put seller will have a loss as he will have to sell XYZ stock to the put buyer and have to pay $100 per share for it. Breakeven price for the put seller is also $95. If XYZ expires at $95, the put seller has to purchase the stock from the put buyer at $100 per share and sell the same 100 shares in the market at $95, but he can keep the original $5 received for selling the put option.
Options lose value as they get closer to expiring. This time decay, or THETA, accelerates in the final thirty days of the option contract’s life.
Buyers of options are fighting time decay.
Sellers of options benefit from time decay.
If a security has a fast move in the correct direction the option buyer will have the advantage.
Options with strike prices closest to the current underlying security price change in value the fastest. If you do expect a security to move, avoid options far “out of the money”, or far above the current price for calls or far below the current security price for puts.
Options are leveraged and can expose you to significant risk. Sellers of calls have unlimited risk if the security price moves up. Sellers of puts have nearly unlimited risk if the security price moves down. Always strive to limit your risk either through the strategy or using conditional orders at your broker. Conditional orders may not help if the underlying security gaps up cheap NHL jerseys or gaps down in price. It is often best to establish limited risk option positions as an option seller using combinations of option trades, or spreads, to limit your risk. This avoids price gap risk of the underlying security.
I hope this answers your basic questions about calls and puts. I’ll be adding more articles expanding how to use calls and puts together in spreads and in combination with the underlying security. Don’t forget to subscribe to our blog via the RSS or email subscription.